Findings on Happiness and ATTITUDES

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and ATTITUDES
Subject Code: A08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A08ATTITUDES0
A08aaAttitudinal career0
A08aa01Earlier attitudes1
A08aa02Change in attitudes1
A08aa03Later attitudes0
A08abCurrent attitudes3
A08acOwn attitudinal organization0
A08ac01Attitudinal rigidity1
A08ac02Attitudinal consistency2
A08ac03Attitudinal stability1
A08ac04Attitudinal consonance0
A07aeAttitude to attitudinal climate0
A07adAttitudinal climate (attitudes of others)0
A07ad01Climate of attitudes to the nation0
A07ad02Climate of attidudes to work2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and ATTITUDES
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate of attidudes to work
Subject code: A07ad02

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelJob satisfaction
Page in Source 328
Our classificationClimate of attidudes to work, code A07ad02
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
Overall, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with 
your job?
Assessed on a 10 point scale from 1=dissatisfied to 
10=satisfied
Remarks
Data: International Survey Research
The original dataset covered 33 nations of which 28 
overlapped this sample. 8 missing values were removed 
by assigning the average score of the other countries 
in its geographical or linguistic so that data were 
available for 36 nations, but not for the 5 arab 
countries and israel.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.68 p < .001
Average happiness by average job-satisfaction in 
36 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate of attidudes to work
Subject code: A07ad02

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelCompany satisfaction
Page in Source 328
Our classificationClimate of attidudes to work, code A07ad02
Operationalization
Five item company satisfaction index, illustrative 
items:
- I would recommend my company as a good place to work
- Taking everything into account, how satisfied are you 
with your company as an employer?

Assessed on a 4 point scale from 1 = disagree to 4 = 
agree
Remarks
Data: International Survey Research
The original dataset covered 33 nations of which 28 
overlapped this sample. 8 missing values were removed 
by assigning the average score of the other countries 
in its geographical or linguistic so that data were 
available for 36 nations, but not for the 5 arab 
countries and israel.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.52 p < .001
Average happiness by average company-satisfaction 
in 36 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes
Subject code: A08aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelWish to be a man
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier attitudes, code A08aa01
Operationalization
Single direct question: "Ever wished to be a member of 
the opposite sex?"

Assessed in 1940

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier wish (1940) by present happiness (1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi˛= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitudes
Subject code: A08aa02

StudyJanz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996
TitleFactors Influencing Quality of Life in Older Women With Heart Disease.
SourceMEDICAL CARE, 2001, V ol. 39, 588 - 598 ,
URLhttp://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Abstract/2001/06000/Factors_Influencing_Quality_of_Life_in_Older_Women.7.aspx
PublicMedical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =570

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social activities
Page in Source 594-596
Our classificationChange in attitudes, code A08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: text not reported

T2-T1 CHANGE:
1:  same or better
0:  deteriorated
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2: 12 months difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=1.50 p < .01
CI95[1.13,1.99]

T2 happiness by T1 satisfaction with social 
activities.
Chances for higher happiness level at T2 are 1.5 
times higher for those whose satisfaction w. 
activity level was high at T1.
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=4.52 p < .01
CI95[2.56,7.95]

T2 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE satisfaction with 
social activities.

Chances for higher happiness level are >4 times 
higher for those whose satisfaction w. activity 
level improved between T1 and T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current attitudes
Subject code: A08ab

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in institutions
Page in Source 94
Our classificationCurrent attitudes, code A08ab
Operationalization
The average of each respondent's self-report on a 
series of questions that asks the respondent on 
confidence in the armed forces, the police, the justice 
system, the parliament, the civil service, the press, 
private companies, and trade unions. Responses are on a 
scale of 1 (none at all) to 4 (a great deal).
Remarks
Scale of responses are assumed to be recoded such that 
higher values means that the respondent has a higher 
level of confidence in each institution.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.21 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL trust in 
institutions

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
Separately in 74 nations.
Significantly positive in 48 nations.
Significantly negative in 1 nation.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current attitudes
Subject code: A08ab

StudyCowan et al. (1998): study US 1993
TitleWomen's Hostility Toward Women.
SourcePsychology of Women Quarterly, 1998, Vol. 22, 267 - 283
URLhttp://pwq.sagepub.com/content/22/2/267
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00154.x
PublicHeterosexual women college psychology students USA 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15
Respondents N =92

Correlate
Author's labelHostility towards women
Page in Source 279
Our classificationCurrent attitudes, code A08ab
Operationalization
Self-reports of resentment and mistrust of women, using 
30 items.

A sample item is "Women irritate me a great deal more 
than they are aware of." Rated from 1 not at all to 7 
always.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha: 0,81
Remarks
Hostility Towards Women (HTW) scale by Check et al. 
(1995)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-br=-,2 p < .05
N = 77


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current attitudes
Subject code: A08ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with the way people over 40 think and act
Page in Source 113
Our classificationCurrent attitudes, code A08ab
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the way people 
over 40 in this country are thinking and acting?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudinal rigidity
Subject code: A08ac01

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /2
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de Personalité en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
PublicAdult women, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelRigidity
Page in Source 102
Our classificationAttitudinal rigidity, code A08ac01
Operationalization
Factor derived from responses on the Heron (1967) 
personality inventory:
most items in this inventory were drawn from the MMPI, 
16 PF Cattel, Wesley rigidity scale and LSI-A.
1.Rigidity in order and minuteness
2.Rigidity in attitudes
3.Rigidity in routines
4.Total rigidity
Remarks





Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.37 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.04 ns
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.04 ns
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.34 ns
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.04 p < .ns1
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=-.03 ns
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=-.03 ns
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=-.03 ns
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=-.03 ns
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.01 ns
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudinal consistency
Subject code: A08ac02

StudyLounsbury et al. (1979): study US Tennessee 1975
TitleThe Relationship of Avowed Life Satisfaction to Public Acceptance of and Expectations about a Nuclear Power Plant.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1979, Vol. 7, 298 - 304
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(197910)7:4%3C298::AID-JCOP2290070404%3E3.0.CO;2-M/pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Hartsville/Trousdale County, Tennessee, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =288

Correlate
Author's labelConsistency of attitude to nuclear plant in town
Page in Source 302
Our classificationAttitudinal consistency, code A08ac02
Operationalization
Correlation between acceptance of the building of a 
nuclear plant and perceptions of hazards and benefits.
1. acceptance - disruption 
2. acceptance - health hazards 
3. acceptance - increased business 
4. acceptance - attention for town 
5. acceptance - economic benefit
Remarks




Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=
r=+.47   r=+.49   difference ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=
r=+.62   r=+.60   difference ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=
r=.+34   r=+.10   difference significant (p<05)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=
r=+.34   r=+.12   difference significant (p<05)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=
r=+.45   r=+.40   difference ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-amr=
mr=+.44 mr=+.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudinal consistency
Subject code: A08ac02

StudyHarry (1976): study US 1973
TitleEvolving Sources of Happiness for Men over the Life Cycle: A Structural Analysis.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1976, Vol. 38, 289 -296
Public18+ aged males, living with family, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =374

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional malintegration
Page in Source 292
Our classificationAttitudinal consistency, code A08ac02
Operationalization
Absolute difference between satisfaction with job and 
with family: both assessed by means of a single direct 
question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.17 ns
Single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.25 ns
Married, no children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.35 ns
Married, pre-school children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.27 p < .05
Married, schoolage children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.27 ns
Married, teenage children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.25 p < .05
Married, children grown up


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudinal stability
Subject code: A08ac03

StudyCrnic et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 105
Our classificationAttitudinal stability, code A08ac03
Operationalization
0 one
1 more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-ar=-.11 ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross on the line on the place you estimate to be what corresponds best with your state.
1 | I don't feel very well in my skin
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I don't feel too well in my skin
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 | I feel very well in my skin

Scoring: rated on open horizontal line scale divided afterwards in 9 sections.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross, on each line, on the place you estimate to be that which corresponds best with your state
1 I am not very happy
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I am not too happy
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 I am quite happy

Scoring: rated on an open horizontal line scale, divided afterwards in 9 sections.
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"When you take everything into consideration, your child, your adult life, etc, how would you describe your current life situation.....?'
1 things are very bad right now
2
3
4
5 things are very good
(Response options not fully reported)
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How have things been going for you during the past 4 weeks?
4 very well
3 pretty good
3 good and bad parts about equal
2 pretty bad
1 bad
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4 neutral
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross on the line below, on the spot you estimate that corresponds best with your state.
1 | I am not very satisfied
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I am not too satisfied
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 I am very satisfied

Scoring: rated on an open horizontal line scale divided afterwards in 9 sections.
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Chi˛CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi˛ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi˛ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A07adAttitudinal climate (attitudes of others)N04akValue climate in the nation
A07adAttitudinal climate (attitudes of others)N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE
A07ad01Climate of attitudes to the nationN06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION
A07ad02Climate of attidudes to workN08aa01Average satisfaction with job
A07ad02Climate of attidudes to workW05WORK: ATTITUDES
A08ATTITUDESG01agGender attitudes
A08aa01Earlier attitudesP01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
A08aa03Later attitudesP05PERSONALITY: LATER
A08acOwn attitudinal organizationP03abPersonality integration
A08acOwn attitudinal organizationP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
A08ac01Attitudinal rigidityP04clRigid
A08ac03Attitudinal stabilityH05aa02Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)
A08ac03Attitudinal stabilityH05aa04Expected change in happiness (period unspecified)
A08ac03Attitudinal stabilityH05ab02Actual changes in happiness
A08ac04Attitudinal consonanceV04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings