Findings on Happiness and APPEARANCE (good looks)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and APPEARANCE (good looks)
Subject Code: A07

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)0
A07aaAppearance career0
A07aa01Earlier appearance4
A07aa02Change in appearance1
A07aa03Later appearance0
A07abCurrent appearance0
A07ab01Ratings by others8
A07ab02Self-rating of good looks2
A07acAttitudes to own appearance0
A07ac01Interest in appearance3
A07ac02Satisfaction with one's appearance6
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and APPEARANCE (good looks)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A07
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier appearance
Subject code: A07aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAbnormal appearance shortly after birth
Page in Source 422-424
Our classificationEarlier appearance, code A07aa01
Operationalization
Appearance as reported in medical file
1:no striking abnormalities
2:one of the following:
  2b: edema, universal
  2c: edema, local
  2d: petechia, universal
  2e: petechia, local
  2f: umbilical cord
  2g: pale
  2h: unicersal cyanosis
  2i: peripheral cyanosis
  2j: cyanosis around the mouth
  2k: cyanosis peropheral and around the mouth
  2l: jaundice
Observed distributionN all:4485, 1:58,5%, 2b:1,4%, 2c:3,2%, 2d:0,2%, 2e:3,1%, 2f:0,2%, 2g:4,2%, 2h:0,4%, 2i:5,2%, 2j:7,5%, 2k:3,3%, 2l:12,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:Mt=7.75
2:Mt=7.67
  2b: Mt=7.74
  2c: Mt=7.36
  2d: Mt=7.14
  2e: Mt=7.86
  2f: Mt=7.05
  2g: Mt=7.44
  2h: Mt=7.20
  2i: Mt=7.83
  2j: Mt=7.65
  2k: Mt=7.76
  2l: Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:Mt=7.40
2:Mt=7.41
  2b: Mt=7.66
  2c: Mt=7.15
  2d: Mt=6.43
  2e: Mt=7.63
  2f: Mt=5.45
  2g: Mt=7.24
  2h: Mt=6.33
  2i: Mt=7.56
  2j: Mt=7.34
  2k: Mt=7.49
  22l: Mt=7.49
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:Mt=7.03
2:Mt=6.99
  2b: Mt=7.21
  2c: Mt=6.70
  2d: Mt=5.36
  2e: Mt=7.25
  2f: Mt=5.91
  2g: Mt=7.03
  2h: Mt=6.61
  2i: Mt=7.08
  2j: Mt=6.95
  2k: Mt=7.09
  2l: Mt=6.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier appearance
Subject code: A07aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAbnormal appearance shortly after birth
Page in Source 426,428
Our classificationEarlier appearance, code A07aa01
Operationalization
Appearance as reported in medical file
1:nothing striking
2:one of the following:
  2a:pale
  2b:universal cyanose
  2c:local cyanose
  2d:jaundice tinge
  2e:light jaundice
  2f:middle jaundice
  2g:strong jaundice
  2h:edema
  2i:sign of bleeding
  2j:pathological navel
  2k:evans blue
  2l:cephalic hematoma
Observed distributionN all:4255, :1:47,0%, 2a:7,0%, 2b:0,3%, 2c:3,9%, 2d:10,8%, 2e:13,5%, 2f:8,7%, 2g:3,7%, 2h:0,5%, 2i:0,3%, 2j:0,6%, 2k:0,2%, 2l:1,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.69
2: Mt=7.77
   2a:Mt=7.78
   2b:Mt=7.33
   2c:Mt=7.91
   2d:Mt=7.64
   2e:Mt=7.85
   2f:Mt=7.86
   2g:Mt=7.69
   2h:Mt=7.39
   2i:Mt=7.66
   2j:Mt=7.40
   2k:Mt=6.79
   2l:Mt=7.94
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1: Mt=7.38
2: Mt=7.45
   2a:Mt=7.46
   2b:Mt=7.14
   2c:Mt=7.35
   2d:Mt=7.46
   2e:Mt=7.49
   2f:Mt=7.51
   2g:Mt=7.44
   2h:Mt=7.50
   2i:Mt=7.84
   2j:Mt=6.73
   2k:Mt=7.14
   2m:Mt=7.26
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=6.99
2: Mt=7.05
   2a:Mt=7.04
   2b:Mt=6.61
   2c:Mt=6.99
   2d:Mt=7.08
   2e:Mt=7.03
   2f:Mt=7.21
   2g:Mt=6.95
   2h:Mt=6.74
   2i:Mt=6.84
   2j:Mt=6.64
   2k:Mt=6.43
   2l:Mt=7.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier appearance
Subject code: A07aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelHead circumference at birth
Page in Source 430
Our classificationEarlier appearance, code A07aa01
Operationalization
Head circumference at birth as reported in medical file
1:under 30 cm
2:30-32 cm
3:32-34 cm
4:34-36 cm
5:36-38 cm
6:over 38 cm
Observed distributionN all:4195, 1:2,0%, 2:3,4%, 3:30,0%, 4:50,0%, 5:13,8%, 6:0,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
1: Mt=7.50
2: Mt=7.58
3: Mt=7.68
4: Mt=7.80
5: Mt=7.59
6: Mt=8.16
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .365
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT=
ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
1: Mt=7.53
2: Mt=7.28
3: Mt=7.33
4: Mt=7.46
5: Mt=7.30
6: Mt=8.01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .512
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT=
ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
1: Mt=7.13
2: Mt=7.03
3: Mt=6.94
4: Mt=7.06
5: Mt=6.94
6: Mt=7.58
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.08 p < .613
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT=
ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier appearance
Subject code: A07aa01

StudyMcKinley Runyan (1980): study US 1932
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Chart: Perceptions of the Course of Subjective Experience.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1980, Vol. 11, 45 - 64
PublicHighschool pupils, Oakland, USA, 1932, followed from age 12 to 38, 1959
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =91

Correlate
Author's labelPrettiness in adolescence
Page in Source 57-59
Our classificationEarlier appearance, code A07aa01
Operationalization
1. Not pretty
2. pretty
Rated on the basis of highschool photographs by 14 
judges.
Observed distribution1: N=22 2: N=23
Remarks
Females only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-lg-9-aDM=+ ns
Difference in current happiness (T2): prettier 
women are happier.

No difference in recalled happiness at earlier 
ages.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in appearance
Subject code: A07aa02

StudyDeHaes et al. (1987): study NL 1981
TitleThe Distinction between Cognition and Affect.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1987, Vol. 19, 367 - 378
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00300368
PublicEarly breast cancer patient, followed 11 and 18 month after treatment, The Netherlands, 1981-1987
Sample
Non-Response17% (6 refusals and one death in the meantime)
Respondents N =34

Correlate
Author's labelImpact of breast- surgery on body image
Page in Source 7
Our classificationChange in appearance, code A07aa02
Operationalization
Perceived impact of breast-surgery, rated on a 4-point 
scale (see de Haes & Welvaart, 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-se-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.50
11 months after surgery (T1)
O-SLW-se-sq-?-7-aBeta=+.16
11 months after surgery (T1)
A-AOL-se-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.23
18 months after surgery (T2)

Beta's controlled for:
- psychological complaints
- pain
- gastro-intestinal symptoms
- loss of libido
- activity level
- fatigue
- fear of recurrence of cancer and death
O-SLW-se-sq-?-7-aBeta=+.49
18 months after surgery (T2)

Beta's controlled for:
- psychological complaints
- pain
- gastro-intestinal symptoms
- loss of libido, activity level
- fatigue
- fear of recurrence of cancer and death


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyVolk & Quinsey (2002): study CA Ontario 1997
TitleThe influence of infant facial cues on adoption preferences
SourceHuman Nature, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 437-455
PublicInfants, portrait of which rated by parents and non-parents, Kingston, Canada, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelHealth
Page in Source 442, 443
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Raters were asked to rate the health of each of 20 
infants on the basis of pictures of faces presented in 
a slide show
Rated on a 1-7 scale.

Ratings made by parents (not the parents of the 
portraits infants) and non-parents. Parents were 
selected from community, mean age 43, Non-parent first 
year undergraduate student, mean age 20 years.
Remarks
At first, the 20 infants had been rated for adoption 
preferences and later for cuteness, resemblance, health 
and happiness (independent variable in this analysis).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-amr=+.48 p < .01
Males   r = +.43 (01)
Females r = +.53 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyVolk & Quinsey (2002): study CA Ontario 1997
TitleThe influence of infant facial cues on adoption preferences
SourceHuman Nature, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 437-455
PublicInfants, portrait of which rated by parents and non-parents, Kingston, Canada, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelCuteness
Page in Source 442, 443
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Raters were asked to rate the cuteness of each of 20 
infants on the basis of pictures of faces presented in 
a slide show
Rated on a 1-7 scale.

Ratings made by parents (not the parents of the 
portraits infants) and non-parents. Parents were 
selected from community, mean age 43, Non-parent first 
year undergraduate student, mean age 20 years.
Remarks
At first, the 20 infants had been rated for adoption 
preferences and later for cuteness, resemblance, health 
and happiness (independent variable in this analysis).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-amr=+.50 p < .01
Males   r = +.47 (01)
Females r = +.52 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyVolk & Quinsey (2002): study CA Ontario 1997
TitleThe influence of infant facial cues on adoption preferences
SourceHuman Nature, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 437-455
PublicInfants, portrait of which rated by parents and non-parents, Kingston, Canada, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelResemblance
Page in Source 442, 443
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Raters were asked to rate each of the 20 infants' 
resemblance with themselves on the basis of pictures of 
faces presented in a slide show
Rated on a 1-7 scale

Ratings made by parents (not the parents of the 
portraits infants) and non-parents. Parents were 
selected from community, mean age 43, Non-parent first 
year undergraduate student, mean age 20 years.
Remarks
At first, the 20 infants had been rated for adoption 
preferences and later for cuteness, resemblance, health 
and happiness (independent variable in this analysis).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-amr=+.13 p < .01
Males   r = +.14 (01)
Females r = +.13 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyDiener et al. (1995b): study US 1993
TitlePhysical Attractiveness and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 120 - 129
PublicCollege students, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical attractiveness
Page in Source 126-127
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Photographs and video were taken under the different 
conditions conditions. 

A: natural(head and shoulders):  Ss was told to stand 
at a designated spot and  a frontal head and shoulder 
photo

b: natural(full length): a condition with a full-length 
photo were shot. 

C: unadorned : Ss were asked to remove jewelry and 
facial cosmetics and then instructed to place their 
face through a piece of poster board that had an oval 
cutout large enough for them to do so.  

D: video: Ss were first asked to look at directly into 
the video camera were prompted to say anything they 
wanted about themselves. In general Ss talked about 
being college students and about the activities 
surrounding university life. After 45-60 seconds they 
were told to stop and face the experimenter while they 
talked about their family. It was videotaped from 3/4 
profile angle and for 45-60 seconds.

Three sets of photographs  were rated by 8 raters(four 
males and four females) and video interview by 5 
assistants on a scale of 0(extremely unattractive) to 
9(extremely attractive)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: a=.90, b=.88, c=.82, d=.56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.17 p < .05
a natural(head and shoulders)
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=+
             Attractiveness ratings 
males        M       SD
- happy      3.8       0.9 
- unhappy    3.4       0.9
Females
- happy      4.6       0.9 
- unhappy    4.4       1.0
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.08 ns
b natural(full length)
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=0
             Attractiveness ratings 
males        M         SD
- happy      4.3       0.8
- unhappy    3.9       1.0
Females
- happy      4.6       1.0 
- unhappy    4.6       1.0
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=-.01 ns
c unadorned photo
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=0
             Attractiveness ratings 
males        M         SD
- happy      4.0       0.6 
- unhappy    4.0       0.8
Females
- happy      4.1       0.9 
- unhappy    4.0       0.7
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.08 ns
d video
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=+
             Attractiveness ratings
males        M         SD
- happy      5.2       1.2 
- unhappy    4.6       1.0
Females
- happy      5.5       2.2 
- unhappy    5.2       1.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyDiener et al. (1995b): study US Illinois 1990
TitlePhysical Attractiveness and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 120 - 129
PublicCollege students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =221

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical attractiveness
Page in Source 122
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Atractiveness was rated by 10 raters on a 10 point 
scale in the basis of still photographs(frontal and 
profile) and videos of paricipants interacting with 
each other
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha: frontal = .89, profile=.89
Remarks
Video ratings were rated by 13.46 raters. Since raters 
differed no interrated reliability was computed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.04 ns
Frontal photographs 
Women r=-.07, ns
Men   r=+.11, ns
A-AB-?-mq-v-0-ar=+.10 ns
Women r=+.08, ns
Men   r=+.12, ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.14 p < .05
Profile photograph
Women r=-.02, ns
Men   r=+.22, p<.05
A-AB-?-mq-v-0-ar=+.12 ns
Women r=-.09, ns
Men   r=+.13, ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.08 ns
Videotape
Women r=+.05, ns
Men   r=+.13, ns
A-AB-?-mq-v-0-ar=+.09 ns
Women r=+.09, ns
Men   r=+.07, ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyDiener et al. (1995b): study US Illinois 1990 /1
TitlePhysical Attractiveness and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 120 - 129
PublicUniversity students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =131

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical attractiveness
Page in Source 124
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Photographs were rated for physical attractiveness by 8 
raters on a scale 1(extremely unattractive) to 10 
(extremely attractive). 

1 Less attractive (top quartile) 
2 More attractive (bottom quartile)
Observed distribution1: Men N=35, Women N=33 2: Men N=36, Women N=27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=+ ns
men
1 Less attractive M= 6.6, SD=1.4
2 More attractive M= 7.0, SD=1.2
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=- ns
women
1 Less attractive M= 7.1, SD=1.7
2 More attractive M= 7.0, SD=1.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyDiener et al. (1995b): study US Illinois 1990 /1
TitlePhysical Attractiveness and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 120 - 129
PublicUniversity students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =131

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical attractiveness
Page in Source 125
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Photographs were rated for physical attractiveness by 8 
raters on a scale 1(extremely unattractive) to 10 
(extremely attractive).

Photographs were taken under four  conditions: 
Natural condition: Ss was told to stand at a designated 
spot and look into the camera. If Ss asked whether or 
not they should smile, they were told that it was their 
choice. 
Neutral condition: Ss were asked to form a neutral 
expression
Smiling condition: Ss were asked to give their best 
smile. 
Adorned condition: Ss were asked to remove jewelry and 
facial cosmetics, to wear a white vinyl shower cap that 
cover their hair and a white lab coat to cover clothing

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.24 p < .01
a natural
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.18 p < .05
b adorned-neutral
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.20 p < .05
c adorned-smiling
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.18 p < .05
d unadorned-neutral
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.09 ns
e unadorned-smiling


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ratings by others
Subject code: A07ab01

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelAppearance
Page in Source 329
Our classificationRatings by others, code A07ab01
Operationalization
Rating by staffmembers on a 7-point scale ranging from 
'very unattractive' to 'very good-looking'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar=+
Open ward  : r = +.16 (ns)
Closed ward: r = +.34 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-rating of good looks
Subject code: A07ab02

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical appearance
Page in Source 466
Our classificationSelf-rating of good looks, code A07ab02
Operationalization
Physical appearance subscale of self-rating scale 
(Fleming and Courtney, 1984). 6 point-scale
Error Estimatesalpha=.70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.29 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-rating of good looks
Subject code: A07ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1995b): study US Illinois 1990
TitlePhysical Attractiveness and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 120 - 129
PublicCollege students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =221

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived physical attractiveness
Page in Source 122
Our classificationSelf-rating of good looks, code A07ab02
Operationalization
Self rating to estimate own physical attractiveness on 
a scale rating from 1(poor) to 10(excellent).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.28 p < .01
A-AB-?-mq-v-0-ar=+.30 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interest in appearance
Subject code: A07ac01

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelBody satisfaction
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationInterest in appearance, code A07ac01
Operationalization
Self report on two questions:
a Think about body:
1:much too thin
2:a bit too thin
3:about right
4:a bit too fat
5:much too fat. 

b change body. 

c diet
1:no, weight fine
2:no, need to lose 
3:no, need to put on
4:yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interest in appearance
Subject code: A07ac01

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes: physical: appearance
Page in Source 211
Our classificationInterest in appearance, code A07ac01
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes: 
0: not mentioned
1: mentioned (weight, size, looks)
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N= 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interest in appearance
Subject code: A07ac01

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in personal attractive-ness
Page in Source 292
Our classificationInterest in appearance, code A07ac01
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
High school students only: U-shaped curve: Those 
reporting 'average' happiness being most 
interested in personal attractiveness
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: U-shaped curve: Those 
reporting 'average' happiness being most 
interested in personal attractiveness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's appearance
Subject code: A07ac02

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelBody satisfaction
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's appearance, code A07ac02
Operationalization
Self report on two questions:
a Think about body:
1:much too thin
2:a bit too thin
3:about right
4:a bit too fat
5:much too fat. 

b change body. 

c diet
1:no, weight fine
2:no, need to lose 
3:no, need to put on
4:yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's appearance
Subject code: A07ac02

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelBody image
Page in Source 937.939
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's appearance, code A07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Are you able to accept your bodily appearance?
1  Not at all
2  A little
3  Moderately
4  Mostly
5  Completely
Observed distributionMean: 3.52: SD=.84
Remarks
Full questions not reported in this paper. 
Question on body image taken from WHOQOL-Bref. 
Question on importance figured in the full 
WHOQOL questionnaire.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.33 p < .01
raw score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.15 ns
score weighted by perceived importance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's appearance
Subject code: A07ac02

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with appearance
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's appearance, code A07ac02
Operationalization
Happiness with appearance rated on a 11 point scale 0 
very unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM=7,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.51 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's appearance
Subject code: A07ac02

StudyJanz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996
TitleFactors Influencing Quality of Life in Older Women With Heart Disease.
SourceMEDICAL CARE, 2001, V ol. 39, 588 - 598 ,
URLhttp://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Abstract/2001/06000/Factors_Influencing_Quality_of_Life_in_Older_Women.7.aspx
PublicMedical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =570

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social activities
Page in Source 594-596
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's appearance, code A07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: text not reported

T2-T1 CHANGE:
1:  same or better
0:  deteriorated
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2: 12 months difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=1.50 p < .01
CI95[1.13,1.99]

T2 happiness by T1 satisfaction with social 
activities.
Chances for higher happiness level at T2 are 1.5 
times higher for those whose satisfaction w. 
activity level was high at T1.
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=4.52 p < .01
CI95[2.56,7.95]

T2 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE satisfaction with 
social activities.

Chances for higher happiness level are >4 times 
higher for those whose satisfaction w. activity 
level improved between T1 and T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's appearance
Subject code: A07ac02

StudyCrandall (1976): study US Ohio 1973
TitleValidation of Self-Report Measures Using Ratings by Others.
SourceSociological Methods and Measures, 1976, Vol. 4, 380 -400
URLhttp://smr.sagepub.com/content/4/3/380.full.pdf+html
PublicAdults, Toledo, USA, 1973
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =771

Correlate
Author's labelBeauty
Page in Source 388
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's appearance, code A07ac02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your beauty?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Remarks
Correlation (+.25) with peer rating of the participants 
satisfaction with his/her beauty.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.29 ns
Own happiness by own satisfaction with beauty.

Similar correlation (+.19) between ratings of 
participants happiness and satisfaction with 
beauty.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's appearance
Subject code: A07ac02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withpersonal attractive-ness
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's appearance, code A07ac02
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significant positive relationship among unhappier 
students only
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significant positive relationship among unhappier 
students only


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-?-mq-v-0-aSelfreport of frequency of affects on 6 questions;

Lead item not reported
A Fear
B Anger
C Sad
D Guilty
E Joy
F Affection

Rating scale not reported

Summation: mean A+B+C+D minus mean E+ F
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-se-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question

"Taken things together: how did you feel since you got ill....?"
7 very good
6
5
4
3
2
1 very bad
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-aRating of facial expression on photograph

Happiness
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Rater instruction and scale labels not reported
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aRating by two independent staff members who were familiar with the patient.
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 depressed
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: I wish I had a different kind of life
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2
3
4.
5: strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tSelf report on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your present life?
4 I feel very happy
3 I feel happy
2 I feel not very happy
1 I feel unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-cy-sq-lg-9-aSelfreport on life graph

'We would like for you to think over your life and then rate each year as to whether it was a high or a low point in your life, i.e., your overall feeling, not necessarily financial success or health, etc, but generally speaking a feeling of wellbeing, however determined.
9 | high
|
8 |
|
7 |
|
6 |
|
5 |
|
4 |
|
3 |
|
2 |
|
1 | low
|______________________________________________
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

The last score represents present happiness
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 excellent
4 good
3 neither good nor bad
2 bad
1 very bad
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How have things been going for you during the past 4 weeks?
4 very well
3 pretty good
3 good and bad parts about equal
2 pretty bad
1 bad
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-se-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question :

"How satisfied are you about your life as a whole since that time?" ( onset of disease)
7 very satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A07ab01Ratings by othersH07abHedonic level of affect
A07ab02Self-rating of good looksS02SELF-IMAGE
A07acAttitudes to own appearanceG01ab01Gender-role attitudes

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings