Findings on Happiness and AFFECTIVE LIFE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and AFFECTIVE LIFE
Subject Code: A03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE0
A03aaAffective career0
A03aa01Earlier affective life0
A03aa02Change in affective life0
A03aa03Later affective life0
A03abCurrent affective life13
A03ab01Complexity of affect-pattern3
A03ab02Intensity of affects37
A03ab03Variability of affects13
A03acAttitudes to affective life4
A03ab04Hedonic tone in affect9
A03aa01aEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousness3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and AFFECTIVE LIFE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had extra-ordinary states of conciousness
Subject code: A03aa01a

StudyHaraldsson & Houtkooper (1991): study ZZ Developed nations 1981
TitlePsychic Experiences in the Multinational Human Values Study: Who Reports Them?
SourceThe Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. 1991, Vol. 85, 145 - 165
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/232447647_Psychic_experiences_in_the_multinational_human_values_study_Who_reports_them
Public15+ aged general popualtion, 11 western nations, 1981-1984
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18607

Correlate
Author's labelExperience of telepathy
Page in Source 157
Our classificationEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousness, code A03aa01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Did you ever had any of the following experiences: Felt 
as though you were in toutch with someone when they 
were away from you?
1:  yes
0:  no
-    don't know
Observed distributionUS 54%, Europe 34%, France 34%, Italy 41%, Spain 21%, Belgium 21%, Great Britain 36%, West Germany 39%, Netherlands 29%, Ireland 19%, Denmark 15%, Finland 40%, Iceland 34%, Norway 17%, Sweden 24%.
Remarks
Greely item on telepathy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.28 p < .01
US
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .01
Europe
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .01
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.27 p < .01
Italy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .01
Spain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .01
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.20 p < .01
Great Britain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .01
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .01
Netherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .01
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .01
Denmark
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .01
Finland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .01
Iceland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13
Sweden


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had extra-ordinary states of conciousness
Subject code: A03aa01a

StudyHaraldsson & Houtkooper (1991): study ZZ Developed nations 1981
TitlePsychic Experiences in the Multinational Human Values Study: Who Reports Them?
SourceThe Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. 1991, Vol. 85, 145 - 165
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/232447647_Psychic_experiences_in_the_multinational_human_values_study_Who_reports_them
Public15+ aged general popualtion, 11 western nations, 1981-1984
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18607

Correlate
Author's labelExperience of clairvoyance
Page in Source 157
Our classificationEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousness, code A03aa01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Did you ever had any of the following experiences: Seen 
events that happened at a great distance as they were 
happening?
1:  yes
0:  no
-    don't know
Observed distributionEurope 21%, US 25%, France 24%, Italy 39%, Belgium 21%, West Germany 17%, Netherlands 12%, Ireland 11%, Denmark 12%, Finland 15%, Iceland 7%, Norway 7%, Sweden 7%.
Remarks
Greeley item on clearvoyance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .01
United States
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .01
Europe
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .01
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.28 p < .01
Italy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .01
Spain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .01
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .1
Great Britain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .01
Neherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .01
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .01
Denmark
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .01
Finland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
Iceland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .01
Norway
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
Sweden


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had extra-ordinary states of conciousness
Subject code: A03aa01a

StudyHaraldsson & Houtkooper (1991): study ZZ Developed nations 1981
TitlePsychic Experiences in the Multinational Human Values Study: Who Reports Them?
SourceThe Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. 1991, Vol. 85, 145 - 165
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/232447647_Psychic_experiences_in_the_multinational_human_values_study_Who_reports_them
Public15+ aged general popualtion, 11 western nations, 1981-1984
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18607

Correlate
Author's labelExperience of contact with the dead
Page in Source 157
Our classificationEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousness, code A03aa01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Did you ever had any of the following experiences: Felt 
as though you were really in touch with someone who had 
died?
1:  yes
0:  no
-    don't know
Observed distributionEurope 25%, US 30%, France 24%, Italy 34%, Spain 16%, Belgium 18%, West Germany 28%, Netherlands 12%, Ireland 16%, Denmark 10%, Finland 14%, Iceland 41%, Norway 9%, Sweden 14%.
Remarks
Greeley item on contact with the dead

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=.15 p < .01
Europe
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=.29 p < ..01
US
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=.20 p < .01
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.28 p < .01
Italy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 p < .01
Spain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .01
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .01
Great Britain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 p < .01
Netherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .01
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
Denmark
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .01
Finland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .01
Iceland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .01
Norway
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .01
Sweden


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyHeadey (1999): study AU AU Victoria 1987
TitleOld Age is not Downhill: The Satisfactions and Well-Being of Older Australians.
SourceAustralian Journal on Aging, 1999, Vol. 18, 32 - 37
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1741-6612.1999.tb00887.x
Public24-76 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, 1987
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affect
Page in Source 33
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Bradburn(1969)Positive Affect Scale (part of the Affect 
Balance Scale)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.52
Correlations were disattenuated for measurement 
error


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
During the last four weeks
a. have you been a very nervous person?
b. have you felt so down in teh dumps nothing could 
cheer you up?
c. have you felt calm and peaceful?
d. have you felt downhearted and blue?
e. have you been a happy person?

Rated:
6: all of the time (100%) 
.
.
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Mental health subscale of SF-36 health questionnaire 
(Ware 1992).

Item e inflates correlation with happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.24 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta= ns
Beta's controlled for:
- social support
- crime-related worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - achievements in life
  - future society
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.25
Beta' s controlled for:
-vitality           (Beta +.17)
-social functioning (Beta +.22)

(30% of variance explained)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.15
Beta' s additionally controlled for satisfaction 
with:
-romantic relationships    (+.13)
-feeling part of community (+.12)
-health                    (+.24)
-recreation                (+.11)
-future security           (+.20)

(48% of variance explained)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelMental Health
Page in Source 258,262,264
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
During the last four weeks
a. have you been a very nervous person?
b. have you felt so down in teh dumps nothing could 
cheer you up?
c. have you felt calm and peaceful?
d. have you felt downhearted and blue?
e. have you been a happy person?

Rated:
6: all of the time (100%) 
.
.
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Mental health subscale of SF-36 health questionnaire 
(Ware 1992).

Item e inflates correlation with happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.42
Beta controlled for:
 - Vitality
 - General Health
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.49
Beta controlled for:
 - Social Functioning
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.41
Beta controlled for:
 - General Health
 - Physical Functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyShmotkin & Hadari (1996): study IL 1991
TitleAn Outlook on Subjective Well-Being in Older Israeli Adults: A Unified Formulation.
SourceThe International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1996, Vol. 42, 271 - 289
Public60+ aged, Israel, 1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =830

Correlate
Author's labelUnstrained affect
Page in Source 278-284
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions
a: I get easily upset
b: I take things hard
c: I get mad more than I used to do
d: I sometimes wory so much bthat I cannot sleep
e: I am afraid of al lot of things
f:  little things bother me more this year
g: I have a lot to be sad about
Remarks
tems that load high on a factor derived from responses 
to several  geriatric adjustment inventories

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.30 p < .0001
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aar=+.31 p < .0001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cr=+.29 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelNegative affect
Page in Source 466
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time 
during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A  sad
B  worried
C  irritable
D  guilty

1  never
2  slight amount (rare)
3  some of the time
4  about half the time
5  much of the time
6  almost always
7  always

Computation: C+D+E+F/4

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
Observed distributionM=2.85, SD=0.90

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=-.73 p < .01
Partly autocorrelation, since this Negative Affect 
Scale is part of the Affect Balance Scale that 
serves as a measure of Happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affect
Page in Source 466
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions:
Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time 
during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A  affectionate
B  joyful
C  happy
D  proud
1  never
2  slight amount (rare)
3  some of the time
4  about half the time
5  much of the time
6  almost always
7  always

Computation: A+B+G+H / 4
Observed distributionM=4.14, SD=1.03
Remarks
Happiness measure type A-AB

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.80 p < .01
Partly autocorrelation, since this Positive Affect 
Scale is part of the Affect Balance Scale that 
serves as a measure of Happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affect
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
PANAS positive scale (range 10-50)
Observed distributionGermany: M=31,9 SD=7,4 (N=1518) Italy: M=33,1 SD=6,9 (N=600) PANAS negative scale not reported.
Remarks
Positive affect is measured based on the Positive and 
Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Negative scale not 
reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bar=+.47 p < .001
Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bar=+.38 p < .001
Italy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelNegative affect
Page in Source 928
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
F   Bored?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Rated:
 yes = 1
 no  = 0

Summation:
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.23 1.25 females 2.25 1.43
Remarks
Negative Affect Scale (NAS) in Bradburn's Affect 
Balance Scale(ABS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.77 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelPositive Affect
Page in Source 928
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  
A   Particularly exited or interested in something?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something 
you had done?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
G   On top of the world?
I    That things were going your way?

Rated:
 yes = 1
 no  = 0

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.79 1.36 females 2.99 1.20
Remarks
Positive Affect Scale (PAS) in Bradburn's Affect 
Balance Scale(ABS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.44 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.72 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study US 2002
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
PublicStudents, University of Illinois, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-ResponseNot reported.
Respondents N =193

Correlate
Author's labelTime dating
Page in Source 352
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Amount of time spent socializing with data or romantic 
partner. 2,8 indicates 4 minutes a day, and 5,3 40 
minutes per day.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aDM=+
Mean time dating among:
- very happy               5,3  (N=25)
- happy                    4,3  (N=42)
             Difference   +1,0

- moderately happy         4,1  (N=75)
- slightly happy           3,1  (N=43)
- unhappy                  2,8  (N=8)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=+.26 p < .01
Positive linear relation. The very happy have 
higher score than the happy.


Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelMindfulness
Page in Source 358
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about experiencing feelings of
- wonder
- union with nature
- peace of mind
- wholeness
- joy
- living in the present moment
- being accepted within the universe

Rated: 1 (never) to 5 (often)
Observed distribution% "often" or "very often" - a sense of wonder 64% - a feeling of union with nature 75% - a sense of peace of mind 81% - a feeling of wholeness 61% - a feeling of joy 74% - a feeling of living in the present moment 65% - a sense of being accepted within the universe 51% mean 26,78, SD 5,21 N=523

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=+.37 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.37 p < .005
Beta controlled for:
- time for self
- relationships
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.33 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- relationships
- discrepancy between selfrated importance of 
ecological sensitivity and the actual use of 
technology
- discrepancy between the selfrated importance of 
homestead food production and actual percentage of 
homestead food production
- time for self
- age
- homestead food production


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's distress and/or extended 
latency to approach an intense or novel stimulus

Each rated on :
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of stimuli not reported
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=-.22 p < .05
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=-.34 p < .05
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current affective life
Subject code: A03ab

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationCurrent affective life, code A03ab
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's distress and/or 
extended latency to approach an intense or novel 
stimulus

Each rated on :
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of stimuli not reported.
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=-.20
paternal report: r=-.15
maternal report: r=-.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Complexity of affect-pattern
Subject code: A03ab01

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelMood differentiation and complexity
Page in Source 216
Our classificationComplexity of affect-pattern, code A03ab01
Operationalization
P-technique factor analysis, using the highest, average 
and lowest mood reporting each day during 28 days on 14 
Wessman & Ricks Personal Feeling Scales.
Four measures were deducted:

-   Percentage of variance explaining 
    by the first factor (indicative of
    low differentiation and complex-
    ity).

-   Average correlation among mood
    ratings (indicative of a lack of
    differentiation).  

-   Number of factors needed to explain
    90% of the variance (indicative of
    high complexity and differentia-
    tion).

-   Number of factors explaining more
    than 10% of the variance each (in-
    dicative of high complexity and 
    differentiation).
Remarks







Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.08 ns




A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.12 ns




C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.08 ns



A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.12 ns



A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.01 ns




C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.10 ns




C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.24 p < . 05




A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.10 ns






Correlational finding on Happiness and Complexity of affect-pattern
Subject code: A03ab01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelAffective complexity
Page in Source 73
Our classificationComplexity of affect-pattern, code A03ab01
Operationalization
Number of factors that independently explain a 
considerable proportion of the variation in mood 
change.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.30 ns
Six factors were used, that were extracted from 
the highest, average and lowest moods reported 
each day during 6 weeks on the 16 Personal Fee- 
ling Scales and 3 closed questions on physical 
health, menstruation and pressure of academic 
work.

See also under 'Types of Affect' (A 2.2).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Complexity of affect-pattern
Subject code: A03ab01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicFemale college students, Radcliff USA, followed 6 weeks, 1957
Sample
Non-Response16%
Respondents N =21

Correlate
Author's labelAffective complexity
Page in Source 73
Our classificationComplexity of affect-pattern, code A03ab01
Operationalization
Number of factors that independently explain a 
considerable proportion of the variation in mood 
change.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.23 ns
Eight factors were used, that were extracted from 
the highest, average and lowest moods reported 
each day during 6 weeks on 11 Personal Feeling 
Scales and 3 closed questions on physical health, 
menstruation and pressure of academic work.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1980a): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleHappiness and Games of Chance.
SourcePaper Institut für Demoskopie, 1980, Allensbach, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/noelle-neumann_e_1980.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany, 1979
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelidentification
Page in Source 10
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Answer to the question which persons Ss had identified 
with in a TV serie on the Holocaust.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Cheerful Ss mentioned more identifications


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyRamzy-Saleh Guirguis & Hermans (1973): study NL 1970
TitleCorrelates of Psychological Well-Being and Emotionality.
SourceGedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie, 1973, Vol. 1, 64 - 91
PublicSecundary school pupils, The Netherlands, 1970
Sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =89

Correlate
Author's labelEmotionality
Page in Source 77
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
0 Ss with few negative and few positive
  feelings (n = 15) 
1 Ss with many negative and many
  positive feelings (n = 16)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSNR= -


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelPleasure
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of pleasure intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=3.80 SD=1.6
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.50 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=+.52 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelAnger
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of anger intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=3.40 SD=1.6
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.31 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.28 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of anxiety intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=2.27 SD=1.6
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.41 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelBoredom
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of boredom intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=3.70 SD=1.9
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.45 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.45 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelFeel fit
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of feel fit and in form intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=3.64 SD=1.5
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.30 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=+.43 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelGrumpy
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of grumpy intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=2.66 SD=1.5
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.42 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelTension
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of tension intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=2.73 SD=1.6
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.26 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.26 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelHumiliation
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of humiliation intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM= 2.34 SD=1.6
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.34 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.31 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelSexual lust
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of sexual lust intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=4.91 SD=1.9
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelSadness
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of sadness intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=2.67 SD=1.7
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.43 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.48 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelShame
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of shame intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=1.60 SD=1.1
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.12 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelIndifference
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of indifference intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=2.83 SD=1.8
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.29 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling offended
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of feeling offended intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=2.25 SD=1.5
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.20 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelSense of guilt
Page in Source 293
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Self report of sense of guilt intensity
1 no intensity
2
3
4
5
6
7 very much intensity
Observed distributionM=1.86 SD=1.3
Remarks
Item in modified version of Tension Stress 
Inventory(TESI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.10 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.09 p < .NS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyFlügel (1925): study GB 1920
TitleA Quantitative Study of Feeling and Emotion in Every Day Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Psychology, 1925, Vol. 15, 318 - 355
PublicAcademics, England, 192?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of feelings
Page in Source 335/336
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Proportion of intense pleasure or unpleasure.
(reported in feeling-diary kept 30 days)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-ar=-
Hedonic level derived from same feeling diary.
Tendency to experience intense pleasure: 
r = -.37
Tendency to experience intense displeasure:
r = -.75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelExtreme anger, occasional liability to
Page in Source 26
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer-rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelExtreme depression, occasional liability to
Page in Source 26
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.53


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelAffect intensity
Page in Source 84
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Larsen and Diener(1987) 40 item affect intensity 
measure which assesses the typical intensity or 
strength with which individuals characteristically 
experience their emotions. The items are balanced in 
terms of positive and negative emotions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²= ns
                Mean affect intensity         
a 10% least happy         150.2     
b 27% close to average    158.2    
c 10% most happy          161.1
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of positive Affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Intensity of positive affect was defined as the average 
intensity of positive affect when the person was happy

SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.29 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.34 p < .001
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.21 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.20 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.25 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.25 p < .01
All beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- frequency of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelInteraction of positiv and negative affect
Page in Source 219
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

INTENSITY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

FREQUENCY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

A high in frequency (>80%), low in intensity
B high in intensity, low in frequency (>50%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=-
A high frequency M = 7.86
B high intensity M = 3.00
- difference        -4.86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /1
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Intensity of positive affect was defined as the average 
intensity of positive affect when the person was happy

SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.22 p < .05
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.26 p < .05
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.07 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.23 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.25 p < .05
All beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- frequency of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency and average affect
Page in Source 219
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Frequency of affect
a positive affect (SUM OF ALL 
(pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n)
b negative affect (SUM OF ALL 
(neg.affect?neg.affect>pos.affect)/n)

Average affect
c positive affect
d negative affect

Assessing using Experience Sampling Method at random 
moments and at the end of a day over 6 weeks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aR²=+.63
a+b
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aR²=+.60
c+d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /2
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Frequency of positive affect was defined as the percent 
of time an individual experienced positive affect at 
levels which exceeded the level of negative affect

Frequency of negative affect vice versa

%time(pos.affect>neg.affect)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.58 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.60 p < .001
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.41 p < .01
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.42 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.42 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.43 p < .01
All Beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- intensity of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /2
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Intensity of positive affect was defined as the average 
intensity of positive affect when the person was happy

SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.23 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.28 p < .05
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.22 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.24 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.24 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.27 p < .05
All Beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- frequency of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelMaximizer
Page in Source 219
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

INTENSITY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

FREQUENCY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

HIGH FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF AFFECT: 
(frequency of positve affect x positive affect 
intensity) - (frequency of negative affect x negative 
affect intensity)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.67
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.51
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /1
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of positve affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Frequency of positive affect was defined as the percent 
of time an individual experiended positive affect at 
levels which exceeded the level of negative affect

Frequency of negative affect vice versa

%time (pos.affect > neg.affect)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.39 p < .01
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.38 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.58 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.57 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.37 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.38 p < .001
All beta's and partial r's controlled for:
- intensity of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyGordon & Hall (1974): study US 1971
TitleSelf-Image and Stereotypes of Femininity: Their Relationship to Women's Role Conflicts and Coping.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1974, Vol. 59, 241 - 243
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0036447
PublicMarried female graduates of liberal arts college, Univ. of Connecticut, USA,1971
Sample
Non-Response49%
Respondents N =229

Correlate
Author's labelEmotionality: level of emotion
Page in Source 243
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Factor derived from a semantic differential of 28 
bipolar 7-point self-rating adjective scales.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ar=-.25 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelShallow affect
Page in Source 215/219
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
20-item index, referring to a general lack of feeling 
of involvement in acti- vities and to avowed emotional 
insensi- tivity (DPI Shallow Affect Scale; see Jackson 
& Messick, 1964).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.04 ns
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelHedonic level of most elated moments
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on highest mood experienced 
during the past day, rated on a 10-point Scale during 
one month (Wessman & Ricks Elation-Depres-
sion Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.81 p < . 01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.29 p < . 05
The mean "daily highest mood" score was correla- 
ted with the mean "daily average mood" score and 
with the happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelHedonic level of most depressed moments
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on lowest mood experienced 
during the past day, rated on a 10-point scale during 
one month (Wessman & Ricks Elation-Depression Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.16 ns
The mean "daily lowest mood" score was correlated 
with the mean "daily average mood" score and with 
the happiness measure.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.73 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHedonic level of most elated moments
Page in Source 283
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on highest mood experienced 
during the past day, rated on a 10-point scale during 6 
weeks (Wessman & Ricks Elation-Depres- sion Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.75 p < . 05
The mean 'daily highest mood' score was correla- 
ted with the mean 'daily average mood' score.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHedonic level of most depressed moments
Page in Source 283
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on lowest mood experienced 
during the past day, rated on a 10-point scale during 6 
weeks (Wessman & Ricks Elation-Depression Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.43 ns
The mean 'daily lowest mood' score was correlated 
with the mean 'daily average mood' score.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelBeing more influenced by peaks than by dips.
Page in Source 81
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Comparison of associations between dai-
ly lowest and daily average moods on the one side and 
daily highest and dai- ly average moods on the other 
side for both unhappy and happy men.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+ s
A positive relation (05) was found when daily 
lowest, average and highest scores during 6 weeks 
on the Elation-Depression Scale (AFF 3.1) were 
correlated and compared. For most of the other 
Personal Feeling Scales the same pattern was 
found.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicFemale college students, Radcliff USA, followed 6 weeks, 1957
Sample
Non-Response16%
Respondents N =21

Correlate
Author's labelHedonic level of most elated moments
Page in Source 277
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on highest mood experienced 
during the past day, rated on a 10-point scale during 6 
weeks (Wessman & Ricks Elation-Depres- sion Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.82 p < . 05
The 6 weeks mean of the 'daily highest mood' score 
was correlated with the 6 weeks mean of the 'daily 
average mood'(AFF 3.1) scores.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intensity of affects
Subject code: A03ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicFemale college students, Radcliff USA, followed 6 weeks, 1957
Sample
Non-Response16%
Respondents N =21

Correlate
Author's labelHedonic level of most depressed moments
Page in Source 277
Our classificationIntensity of affects, code A03ab02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on lowest mood experienced 
during the past day, rated on a 10-point scale during 6 
weeks (Wessman & Ricks Elation-Depression Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.41 ns
The mean 'daily lowest mood' score was correlated 
with the mean 'daily average mood'(AFF 3.1) score.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyFlügel (1925): study GB 1920
TitleA Quantitative Study of Feeling and Emotion in Every Day Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Psychology, 1925, Vol. 15, 318 - 355
PublicAcademics, England, 192?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9

Correlate
Author's labelVariability of feelings_A
Page in Source 334
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Standard deviation of the average proportion of 
different degrees of feeling intensity.
(reported in feeling-diary kept 30 days)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-ar=-.73
Hedonic level derived from same feeling diary.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyFlügel (1925): study GB 1920
TitleA Quantitative Study of Feeling and Emotion in Every Day Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Psychology, 1925, Vol. 15, 318 - 355
PublicAcademics, England, 192?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9

Correlate
Author's labelVariability of feelings_B
Page in Source 334
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Mean deviation of the average proportion of different 
degrees of feeling intensity. (Reported in 
feeling-diary kept 30 days).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-ar=-.18
Hedonic level derived from same feeling diary.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelQuick oscillation between cheerfulness and depression
Page in Source 26
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelVariation in past happiness Ladder: best-worst
Page in Source 92
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Difference in response to two single
direct questions:
a  "Where on the ladder was your best week in the past 
year - on which rung would you put it?"
b "Where on the ladder was your worst week during the 
past year - on which rung?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale
ranging from best life (9) to worst
life (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.00
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.00
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.00
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=-.00
O-DT asked second: r=-.00
O-DT asked third : r=-.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.00
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=-.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyFordyce (1972): study US 1971
TitleHappiness, its Daily Variation and its Relation to Values.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, U.S. International University, 1972, San Diego, California, USA
PublicUniversity students, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =86

Correlate
Author's labelMood variability, day to day
Page in Source 151
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Standard deviation of the daily happiness reported each 
day during 6 weeks on single question:

On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel 
today....?

1   Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely 
down.
2   Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3   Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4   Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5   Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6   Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7   Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat 
cheerful.
8   Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9   Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10  Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, 
fantastic.
Remarks
Adapted Wessman & Ricks (1966) Elation-Depression Scale
Happines question type A-ARE

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.43 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelMood fluctuation
Page in Source 215/219
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
20-item index referring to day-to-day and within-day 
mood fluctuation (Mood Fluctuation Scale; see Jackson & 
Messick, 1984).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.11 ns
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.32 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelDay to day variability in specific moods
Page in Source 230/231
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Standard deviation of the lowest, average and highest 
scores reported each day during one month on the 
Wessman & Ricks Personal Feeling Scales (see Wessman & 
Ricks, 1966).

 1. Companionship vs being isolated



 2. Energy vs fatigue



 3. Harmony vs anger



 4. Impulse expression vs self-
    restraint


 5. Love and sex
    


 6. Own sociability vs withdrawal



 7. Personal freedom  vs external con-
    straint


 8. Personal moral judgement



 9. Present work



10. Receptivity towards the world



11. Self-confidence vs feeling of in-
    adequacy


12. Thought processes



13. Tranquility vs anxiety
Remarks
Each of the Personal Feeling Scales was scored each 
night for the lowest, average and highest mood 
experienced that day.
For Personal Feeling Scales see also under 'Types of 
Affect' (Part III, A 2.2).


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.06 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.05 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.09 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.00 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.04 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.09 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = +.15 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.23 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.13 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.05 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.08 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.04 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = +.00 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.01 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.13 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.04 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.04 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.10 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = +.01 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.07 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.05 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.03 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.02 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.02 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = +.16 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.15 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.19 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.02 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.03 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = -.05 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = -.04 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.06 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.12 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= - ns
Daily highest:  r = -.03 (ns)
Daily average:  r = -.03 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.05 (ns)

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br= + ns
Daily highest:  r = +.08 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.15 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.28 (ns)



Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelVariability in ela- tion vs depression, day to day
Page in Source 231
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Standard deviation of lowest, average and highest mood 
reported each day during one month on the Wessman & 
Ricks Elation-Depression Scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=
The Elation-Depression Scale was scored each night 
for lowest, average and highest mood expe- rienced 
that day over a period of 6 weeks.

Daily highest:  r = -.03 (ns)
Daily average:  r = +.08 (ns)
Daily lowest :  r = +.24 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelVariation in hedonic level, within day
Page in Source 61
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Hedonic level of affect was rated each night during 6 
weeks. The days highest, average and lowest mood was 
rated.

1. Day to day variation
   Mean differences between the lowest
   and highest mood reported each day
   during 6 weeks.
Remarks




Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.29 ns
1. Within-day


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelVariation in hedoniclevel, day to day
Page in Source 61
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
2. Day to day variations.
   Standard deviation of the average
   mood reported each day during 6
   weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.03 ns
2. Day-to-day


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyWessman et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleCharacteristics and Concomitants of Mood Fluctuations in College Women.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1960, Vol. 60, 117 - 126
PublicFemale college students, followed 6 weeks, Radcliffe, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response44% dropouts
Respondents N =14

Correlate
Author's labelMood fluctuation
Page in Source 121
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
    The Elation-Depression Scale was
    scored each night for lowest, ave-
    rage and highest mood experienced
    that day over a period of 6 weeks.
 
1.  Within a day:
    Mean difference between the lowest
    and highest mood reported each day
    during 6 weeks on the Elation-
    Depression Scale.

2.  Day-to-day:
    Standard deviation of the average
    mood reported each day during 6
    weeks on the Elation-Depression 
    Scale.
Remarks





Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.36 ns




A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.17 ns











Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyJohnson (1940): study US 1940
TitleThe Social Meaning of Mood.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1940, Vol. 12, 163 - 169
PublicFemale university students, members of a sorority, USA, 1940
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =30

Correlate
Author's labelMoodiness
Page in Source 164
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Peerrating by sorority members for 'changeableness of 
mood'.
Rating by ranking in a randomly assigned group of 15 
Ss.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-0-aDM=+
Most moody: mean rank =7.1
Least moody:mean rank =9.9
Most cheerfull rank  1, least 15

A-CP-g-rdp-ro-0-ars=+.27 s
Group 1 (Randomly assigned)
 
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-0-ars=+.03 ns
Group 2 (Randomly assigned)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variability of affects
Subject code: A03ab03

StudyYoung (1937a): study US 1934 /1
TitleLaughing and Weeping, Cheerfulness and Depression: A Study of Moods among College Students.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1937, Vol. 8, 311 - 334
PublicCollege students, psychology course, USA, 1934-35
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelMood variability, day to day
Page in Source 329
Our classificationVariability of affects, code A03ab03
Operationalization
Comparison of averages and average de- viations on a 
7-point mood scale, scored daily over a period of 3½ 
weeks. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-aDM= - ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction when one enjoys the moment
Page in Source 357
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when you simply enjoy the 
moment.
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:1%, 4:2%, 5:5%, 6:7%, 7:11%, 8:21%, 9:23%, 10:28%, DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2081

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.0  M = 7.9             +1.1
top 3:  M = 8.7  M = 7.6             +1.2 
top 5:  M = 8.5  M = 7.0             +1.5
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 494, Others: 8-0 N=1588
Top 3: 10-8 N=1070, Others: 7-0 N=1012
Top 5: 10-6 N=1663, Others: 5-0 N= 418


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Frequency of positive affect was defined as the percent 
of time an individual experienced positive affect at 
levels which exceeded the level of negative affect

Frequency of negative affect vice versa

%time(pos.affect>neg.affect)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.53
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.39 p < .001
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.38 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.69
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.53 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.56 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.72
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.49 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.48 p < .001
All beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- intensity of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /1
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of positve affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Frequency of positive affect was defined as the percent 
of time an individual experiended positive affect at 
levels which exceeded the level of negative affect

Frequency of negative affect vice versa

%time (pos.affect > neg.affect)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.39 p < .01
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.38 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.58 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.57 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.37 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.38 p < .001
All beta's and partial r's controlled for:
- intensity of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelInteraction of positiv and negative affect
Page in Source 219
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

INTENSITY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

FREQUENCY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

A high in frequency (>80%), low in intensity
B high in intensity, low in frequency (>50%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=-
A high frequency M = 7.86
B high intensity M = 3.00
- difference        -4.86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelMaximizer
Page in Source 219
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

INTENSITY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

FREQUENCY OF POSITIVE AFFECT
SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

HIGH FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF AFFECT: 
(frequency of positve affect x positive affect 
intensity) - (frequency of negative affect x negative 
affect intensity)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.67
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.51
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents , USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =107

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency and average affect
Page in Source 219
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Frequency of affect
a positive affect (SUM OF ALL 
(pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n)
b negative affect (SUM OF ALL 
(neg.affect?neg.affect>pos.affect)/n)

Average affect
c positive affect
d negative affect

Assessing using Experience Sampling Method at random 
moments and at the end of a day over 6 weeks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aR²=+.63
a+b
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aR²=+.60
c+d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /1
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Intensity of positive affect was defined as the average 
intensity of positive affect when the person was happy

SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.22 p < .05
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.26 p < .05
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.07 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.23 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.25 p < .05
All beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- frequency of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /2
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Frequency of positive affect was defined as the percent 
of time an individual experienced positive affect at 
levels which exceeded the level of negative affect

Frequency of negative affect vice versa

%time(pos.affect>neg.affect)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.58 p < .001
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.60 p < .001
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.41 p < .01
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.42 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.42 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.43 p < .01
All Beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- intensity of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonic tone in affect
Subject code: A03ab04

StudyDiener et al. (1991): study US 1989 /2
TitleHappiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
SourceStrack, F.;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicStudents, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of positive affect
Page in Source 217
Our classificationHedonic tone in affect, code A03ab04
Operationalization
Experience Sampling Method at random moments and at the 
end of a day over 6 weeks

Intensity of positive affect was defined as the average 
intensity of positive affect when the person was happy

SUM OF ALL (pos.affect?pos.affect>neg.affect)/n

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.23 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arpc=+.28 p < .05
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.22 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.24 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.24 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.27 p < .05
All Beta's and partial correlations controlled 
for:
- frequency of positive affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to affective life
Subject code: A03ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of humor sense, attitudes and positive emo
Our classificationAttitudes to affective life, code A03ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "humor sense, attitudes and positive emotions"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 8,15 SD: 1,57, Non-exercisers: M: 7,92 SD: 1,78
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.23 p < .05
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to affective life
Subject code: A03ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution to happiness of love and loving/beingloved
Our classificationAttitudes to affective life, code A03ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "loving and being loved"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 8,36 SD: 1,73, Non-exercisers: M: 7,73 SD: 2,54
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.15 p < .16
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to affective life
Subject code: A03ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution to happiness of love and being loved
Our classificationAttitudes to affective life, code A03ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "love and being loved"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 8,21 SD: 1,71
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=-.05 p < .47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to affective life
Subject code: A03ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of humor sense, attitudes and positive emo
Our classificationAttitudes to affective life, code A03ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "humor sense, attitudes and positive emotions"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 6,57 SD: 2,41
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.09 p < .21


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 18 questions:

How have things been going in the past few weeks? Please tick one of the two boxes for each of the questions below:
A Have you been anoyed with someone?
B Have you ever felt lonely or remote from people?
C Have you ever felt that things were going your way?
D Have you ever felt very worried
E Have you ever felt pleased because you've got friends?
F Have you ever been afraid of what might happen?
G Have you ever felt particularly excited or interested in something?
H Have you ever felt depressed or unhappy?
I Have you ever been full of energy?
J Have you ever felt really tired?
K Have you ever felt so restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
L Have you ever felt that you were really enjoying yourself?
M Have you ever felt really cheerfull?
N Have you ever felt like crying?
O Have you ever felt at the top of the world?
P Have you ever felt confident about the future?
Q Have you ever felt bored?
R Have you ever felt pleased about having accomplished something?

Rated:
0: no
1: yes

Computation: (C+E+G+I+L+M+O+P+R) - (A+B+D+F+H+J+K+N+Q)

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale: extended version
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice with an interval of 16 days.

"Consider your experience during the past 24 hours, being as objective and matter-of-fact as possible. Estimate honestly the prevailing or dominant level of your mood, and put a cross through the term which most accurately describes your prevailing feeling".
7 highly elated
6 moderately cheerful
5 mildly cheerful
4 indifferent
3 wildly depressed
2 moderately depressed
1 extremely gloomy


Summation: Average of 32 scores.
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions, in emotion diary kept 30 days (experience sampling)

Several times per hour Ss noted in a diary:
A the emotion(s) they had experienced the last few minutes.
B the number of minutes they experienced these feelings.
C the hedonic dimension they experienced in these feelings
.
Scoring: numerical rating from +3 to -3
Summation: The total percentage of unpleasure (AxB) was divided by the total percentage of pleasure (question C)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aSelfreport of momentary mood on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much you feel each of the emotions below. Put a number from 1 to 7 to accurately reflect how much you feel that emotion RIGHT NOW.
A worry
B affection
C anger
D joy
E sadness
F guilt
G contentment
H pride

1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 extremely intense

Computation: (B+D+G+H) - (A+C+E+F) / 8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance' DRM format
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-0-aPeer rating on single question:

Ranking by 30 sorority members. The 30 members were divided in two groups of 15 and each member was asked to rank the two groups on basis of "cheerfulness and gaiety" (full item not reported).
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1 completely unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2. unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things into account, how happy would you say you
are these days.....?
1 not too happy
2 moderately happy
3 very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5 very happy

Labels of other response options not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dSelfreport on single question;

Everything considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied would you say you are with your life these days?
1 extremely dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
3 pretty dissatisfied
4 both satisfied and dissatisfied (neutral)
5 pretty satisfied
6 very satisfied
7 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
MCTMultiple Comparison Test, variant not specified
Possible variants: Scheffe, Tukey, Student/Newman/Keuls, Bonferoni (BMCT)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level Correlate nominal, Happiness: metric
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A03AFFECTIVE LIFEI03ac01Emotion recognition
A03AFFECTIVE LIFEO01aa03History of current occupation
A03aaAffective careerM13aaMood career
A03aaAffective careerP01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
A03aa01aEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousnessL06aa01bSpecific earlier life-events
A03aa01aEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousnessM07ac11cPsychotic (f99)
A03aa01aEver had extra-ordinary states of conciousnessR01ae01Has spiritual experiences
A03ab01Complexity of affect-patternP03aaPersonality differentiation
A03ab01Complexity of affect-patternI03ac05Verbal ability
A03ab02Intensity of affectsH05aa01dExtremes of happiness experienced
A03ab02Intensity of affectsP04axEmotional
A03ab03Variability of affectsP04czStable
A03ab04Hedonic tone in affectH07aa02Overall Happiness and Hedonic Affect-level
A03ab04Hedonic tone in affectH07abHedonic level of affect
A03ab04Hedonic tone in affectM13ac03Feeling cheerful (vs gloomy)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings